Sunday, May 24, 2020

How a Daughter Grieves the Loss of a Mother

A son’s a son till he takes a wife, a daughter’s a daughter for the rest of her life. By and large, this old folk saying still rings true. Generally, young men are raised to become autonomous beings, and the act is regarded as mandatory to their adult development. On the other hand, young women are raised to become moms themselves and remain close to their mothers, setting off what many psychologists maintain is the most intense relationship in a woman’s life. The mother-daughter bond is essential, and 80-90 percent of women report good relationships with their mothers during their midlife, despite wanting an even stronger relationship. What Happens When a Mother Passes When her mother dies, the adult daughter loses her security touchstone. As long as her mother is alive, even if she’s halfway across the country, she’s often only a phone call away. Even if a daughter doesn’t always reach out to her mother when she has a problem, knowing her mother is around can be reassuring. Alternatively, when mom dies, the daughter is starkly alone. Women with close mother-daughter relationships may feel the loss more acutely, but the dynamics are the same for women who report conflicted relationships with their mothers—there is a prevailing tendency to feel unmoored. According to a 2016 article by psychologist Susan Campbell, 92% of daughters say that their relationship with their mother is positive, and over half of women say their mother was more influential than their father. Coping With a Mother Who Has Died Many adult daughters hold a story of their mothers that is based more on the daughters’ wounded memories than on the real truth of their mothers’ lives. For the brave at heart, the immediate aftermath of a mother’s death can be an opportunity for a more objective, compassionate understanding of her and, in turn, a resolution of long-standing differences. Clues to a mother’s true narrative can be found by listening attentively to stories told at the funeral, studying her letters and personal writings, and reviewing her choice of reading materials and entries in her calendar. Even the contents of her closet can help to fill in the gaps of her life. Daughters can take this time to learn more about their mother, and cope with the grief by expressing their feelings, remembering and cherishing their mom, and allowing themselves to grieve properly. Learning About Mom Through Memories Often, there can be a real disparity between a mother’s public self and her private self, or the one portrayed in the family. Many women lead much more accomplished lives than their mothers, which can mask their gifts. A mother’s death can be an excellent time to revisit her teachings. For example, Hillary Clinton’s mother, Dorothy Rodham, was cast off by her parents and sent to live with harsh grandparents. She never got the opportunity to attend college, but when Hillary phoned home from Wellesley, worried that she wouldn’t make the grade, Dorothy encouraged her to stick it out, something she had learned the hard way. Theres no doubt that Hillary Clinton’s reputation as a tenacious candidate and negotiator owes a lot to her mother’s support. Embedded in this example is the knowledge that mothers want the best for their daughters. We can return the favor by rediscovering our mother’s stories and honoring them.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Earning a Masters Degrees in Computer Science Online 2019

There are several well established and accredited online colleges that offer masters degrees in computer science. Much like an MBA, the masters in computer science (or one of its related fields) tickets the graduate for a leadership role, and the masters programs that you will find online reflect that. A bachelors degree in computer science or in any other major provides the liberal arts underpinning that is an essential part of higher education. It is at this level that you will find the course requirements in English composition and literature, in history in the sciences and in the arts. Undergraduate programs usually include some sort of mathematics requirement, usually finessed by non-science oriented students with a statistics class. In computer science you will probably need polished mathematical skills at the leadership level as well as the operational. It would be wise to look at the mathematics employed in some of the courses for a masters in computer science while you are still pursuing your bachelors, so that you will be prepared. If you are coming to a masters program some years after completing your bachelors in information technology, a refresher course or two in math may be in order. .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013 { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013:active, .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013 { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013 .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013 .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u8ed4b0301121a1ad420f1ea8c667b013:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Online Degree Programs The Pros and Cons of Enrolling in Higher Education through Distance ProgramsCapella University has an online program for a masters in science (MS) in Information Technology, Network Architecture and Design Specialization. These are the core courses: Technical Communications Masters Enterprise System and Application Development Overview of Enterprise Applications Project Management for Technology Professionals System Development Theory and Practice System Usability Analysis and Design Enterprise Application Testing Quality Assurance Business Foundations You must choose five of these specialization courses: Network Technology Enterprise System Security Client Server Architecture and Design Network Enterprise Architecture and Design Advanced Network Technology-Routing Advanced Network Technology-Switching Advanced Network Technology-Remote Access Advanced Network Technology-Troubleshooting Ethical and Legal Considerations in Information Technology Special Topics in Technology The title and the curriculum of Capellas program reflect the purpose of the degree. It provides core courses in management-level applications of computer technology, and then provides specialization options that can take the graduate in a number of directions. That is the type of pragmatism you will find in online masters programs in computer science. .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc:active, .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u4fe447c17f3881383fe9af991261d3cc:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ A Master's Degree in Health Care ManagementBoth University of Phoenix Online and Kaplan University have MBA programs with specialization in information technology. Both are heavily business-oriented schools. Kennedy- Western University has a masters program in Computer Science with a fairly demanding curriculum focusing on programming and computer function: Programming Languages Computer Science Theory Systems Architecture Operating Systems I Relational Databases Analysis of Algorithms Object-Oriented Design Compiler Design Software Engineering Artificial Intelligence Data Communications Expert Systems Development Human Computer Interface Design The Thesis Proposal The Thesis (9 Units) This course of study comes complete with masters thesis. Despite the fact that it is distance learning, many online courses provide extensive communication with the faculty that are teaching their courses. Clearly, a thesis proposal and critique is not going to be much different than an on-campus experience. Note also the number of classes in this program that will no doubt require algebra, and perhaps some calculus as well. An online masters in computer science is the real thing, requiring real effort, and gaining the graduate real payoff. .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d:active, .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u5b24ff195eb19d46e2c3c9c80927566d:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ RN to Bachelor of Science in Nursing 10 Highest Paying Nursing Specialties in ColoradoRelated ArticlesTake the Steps Today to Become a School Teacher TomorrowSteps to Earning a Criminal Justice DegreeParalegal Degree Options OnlineOnline Masters and Doctorates Degrees in EducationFind Online Computer and Technology Degrees and ProgramsParalegal Career Education

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Addiction And Substance Abuse During Pregnancy - 952 Words

Mothers addicted to heroin during a pregnancy are not only harmful to mother and child during gestation but have many social and medical problems after birth of the child. In the first paragraph I describe how women might come to find themselves in the situation of abusing drugs and finding out they are pregnant. I will provide information on some signs or a profile of addiction and substance abuse in women. The next point I will cover is through an interesting study that shows what the mothers pregnancy , the babies birth and postpartum outcomes are. I will explore what the options are for treatment during pregnancy and whether the mother can be separated from her dependency. Lastly I will disclose what the legal and social implications for chemical dependent women hold. Do moms go to jail? I will bring to light what the future holds for new born that have a mother who is addicted to heroin. How did this happen Most people have an image of a heroin user as a skinny dirty junky in an alley sticking a needle in their arm. Times have changed and that’s because the behaviors of use have changed now many smoke or snort heroin. According to the text, Drug Use and Abuse, historically mostly heroin was used by adults, but early use of heroin by US teens is the new trend, (Maisto, Galizio, Connors, 2015). This may be the start or gateway that may lead to injecting as the dependence escalates. Another introduction could be through experimenting with opioid drugs likeShow MoreRelatedSubstance Abuse During Pregnancy?889 Words   |  4 PagesSubstance Abuse During Pregnancy The use of controlled substances throughout pregnancy is a very prevalent issue among society today. Controlled substances have devastating effects on not only the mothers using the substances, but also infants while they are in utero and after they are born. 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There are many types of substance abuse such as alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse. Most likely when women choose to engage in these types of activities it causes harm to the child and birth defects. Long term and short term deformities and conditions are present in the child. Other factors play a part into whyRead MoreWhy Pregnant Substance Abuse Should Be Treated As A Major Issue1441 Words   |  6 PagesThere are many reasons why pregnant substance abuse should be treated as a major issue. The effects of substance abuse on the mother, fetus, and the overall pregnancy can range from none to extremely harmful. Women who use drugs during their pregnancy commonly give birth to â€Å"crack babies† or â€Å"drug babies†. These babies can have developmental disabilities or other birth defects. The mother may give birth to a premature infant, underweight infant, or even have a stillborn birth. The drug use of a pregnantRead MoreDrug Abuse Essay1546 Words   |  7 PagesThesis: Drug abuse, also known as substance abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others. Many teens turn to marijuana, prescription drugs, club drugs, alcohol, or other substances as a means of coping with stress, peer influence, and failure of parents to prevent their children from making unreasonable decisions. According to the yearly â€Å"Monitoring the Future† survey of high school age teenagersRead MoreChapter 5 81060 Words   |  5 Pagestypes on contraceptive methods and their effectiveness to help prevent unplanned pregnancy and avoid preventing transmitted sexual diseases. Approaches to avoid fertility today are male female condoms, the diaphragm, Emergency pills, etc. Condoms are more effective from preventing sexual transmitted infections. Of course there are other alternates ways mention in this chapter to avoid fertility or unplanned pregnancy like outer course and withdrawals. For those who are considering reproductive choicesRead MoreThe Issue Of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome ( Nas ) Is A Vital Issue Concerning Premature Babies1522 Words   |  7 Pagesthe womb (Care is close by). While many women are continuing the use of drugs during pregnancy, NAS is a growing issue that many health officials and professionals are working to diminish. NAS can cause issues with many individuals that come in contact with it including the babies, their mothers, and their nurses and doctors. Drugs Abused NAS is caused from the use of illicit drugs or substances during a mother’s pregnancy. In a recent study done to show the actuality of women using illicit drugs

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility for Reputation and Performance

Question: What Is The Corporate Social Responsibility For Reputation And Performance? Answer: Introducation The concept of corporate social responsibility is a critical factor in businesses that has significant effects on its performance and reputation. Corporate responsibility is a call to action that considers doing right to the environment where a company operates. By large, it focuses on the ethical and moral obligation to an environment where a business derives profits in the process of its operation. The concept is both a requirement by law and also an act that has to be done for any company with ethical values in its functioning. Apart from giving back to the society, social responsibility by firms initiates growth in reputation as well as improved performance in a firm. Three theories present the case for corporate social responsibility and the different approaches to its execution. The theories include the instrumental theory, political theory, integrative theory, and ethical theories in corporate social responsibility (Lelwala, 2015). Instrumental theory relates to the notion that a corporation is perceived as an instrument for wealth creation, where the social activities attached to it aim at achieving profits to a firm. On the other hand, the political theory concerns itself with responsible use of power in society to remain responsible to legal requirements (Mallin, Farag Ow-Yong, 2014). The integrative theory relates to focus on the satisfaction of social demands while the ethical theories refer to the responsibility of corporations to society. All these work well towards a firms reputation and performance. Instrumental Theories The theory suggests the use of social activities towards driving revenues for a firm. CSR is driven by the need for communities to remain responsible to the environment and impacting the lives of individuals positively. The economic responsibility of companies is to make money, and the social activities in its responsibilities have to remain on the trend too. In this case, firms need to concentrate on the corporate social responsibilities that shape their financial growth. Hence, a firm working in the legal system has to focus on the business responsibility that defends the community initiative in courts at no fee. In this case, they do so to attract a good reputation for itself through donating their skills and time in court for a particular community issue (Cahan, Chen, Chen, Nguyen, 2014). Such matters might be cases of land grabbing of public land used by children in play or the presence of a factory that has grave consequences to the society. Consequently, such a law firm gains a good standing with a society where it eventually gains a proper financial gain leading to increased performance and reputation (Du, Bhattacharya, Sen, 2010). Therefore, a firm in the process manages to handle its economic responsibility. Further, they increase the economic capability of society to get involved in its production and consumption of products. In this respect, businesses stand a high chance of receiving assistance from a community and gaining the best personnel for business undertakings. Apart from creating a positive image for the firm, the action leads to great consequences to the performance of a firm both in profitability and brand name growth (Unerman, 2008). Corporate social responsibility works positively as a marketing tool for organization core activities. In the process of carrying out the social responsibilities, enterprises manage to sell out their products and services in a manner that appeals to the customers thus growing its reputation and ability to handle several issues in operation. For instance, a construction company taking part in a disaster aftermath by building houses for the affected individuals as a social giving creates a good name through a strong construction project composed of an attractive housing. Consequently, such an action advertises its offering to the market thus increasing its ability to participate in society actions boosting the same. Finally, apart from the creation of a good reputation, social giving given directly to the employees affects the loyalty levels of employees leading to increased business performance. Satisfied employees tend to develop a liking for an organization thus reducing the employee turnover rate (Vanhamme Grobben, 2009). As a result, workers focus more on the ability to perform better to earn more for the firm and themselves through better working relation. Consequently, they end up giving their best to the society increasing the ability to compete others in the society. Legal Responsibility The legal aspect of the corporate social responsibility refers to the adherence of rules and responsibilities given to a firm through government policies that task their participation as a proactive duty. The government has the mandate of checking whether companies are adhering to the same and the non-compliant ones risk being phased off and rated negatively thus affecting its reputation (Brnn, Vrioni, 2001). Consequently, firms have to behave positively by participating in social responsibilities that affect the general public. For example, a manufacturing plant with a factory near areas of settlement has to remain responsible for participating in activities that promote protection and purification of water sources from where they benefit from the water used in production. Besides, one should concern itself in activities that reduce pollution and continuously focus on this and other charitable activities such as sponsoring children to school using the proceeds from its revenues. Consequently, such a firm would be building a positive image for itself as well as remaining in line with the legal requirements of a given legislation on social responsibility. According to Branco and Rodrigues (2006), such rules have to be obeyed to obtain a good standing with the government and the society that serves as the consumers for products. Failure to do so results in distorted relationships with the government that consequently results in difficulties in operation and eventually closure on the inability to comply accompanied with considerable fines. Therefore, the legal responsibilities associated with social giving assists in developing a good image for a firm and hence the reputation which increases the performance financially. Government and the general society are more inclined to do business with organizations that adhere to the regulations set by the authority and the expectations of society. McWilliams, Siegel Wright, (2006) suggest that participating in social giving improves the likelihood of a firm participating in government tendering process as well as getting support from the society through the purchase of products. Apart from creating awareness to the community, the move assists in developing the notion of compliance to the regulations and societal expectations which in return boost the business of organizations. The government through regulations limits companies that do not comply with regulations from doing business in the society. Therefore, abiding by the provisions in any given environment through community participation builds a good rapport and ease of doing things (Moir, 2001). A company failing to comply and impact communities risk facing resistance from the community which leads to subsequent closure and losses for a firm. Hence, it is evident that participating in social events leads to a good reputation not only with the government but also with the individuals in the society. The Ethical Responsibility The theory of ethical responsibility refers to the willing nature of a business to participate in social activities to the environment under an area of operation towards creating a good rapport hence developing a good reputation. The good reputation and engagement with the society develop into a fostered good rating and a high ability to attract customers and employees who are satisfied with its internal operation. The situation occurs due to ethical reasoning where a firm concentrates on a social giving with or without a prompt by the law in any given case (Zadek, Evans Pruzan, 2013). The theory relates to the existence of a coherent corporate culture that perceives the business itself as a citizen in the society where it is obligated to remain beneficial to the same community supporting its business model. A classic example of such an activity involves a company concerned with the creation of drinks in the market which uses a considerable amount of water in its production. According to Vitell (2015), such a firm is not mandated by law to provide clean water to the society but can opt to do so in good faith towards assisting the community. A firm can decide to give back to the society by constructing water points run by the company where the locals benefit from clean water initiative that goes a long way to benefit the society at no fee (Bowen, 2013). Consequently, such a firm would be behaving ethically as there is no compelling factor to its activities from the laws in the industry but rather carries out the activity in good faith due to proper ethics in its management. Eventually, such a firm gains a good reputation which brings more business to its entity thus increasing its performance in the market and the ability of the society to cooperate in its production activities. At times, companies involve themselves in ethical dilemmas. In such a case, the concept of social responsibility acts positively in creating a good name and building a high reputation through a turn-around strategy. For instance, a company involved in child labor which decides to change its operation can participate in organized events aimed at creating advocacy for the education of children and discouraging the society from child labor (Fleming, Roberts Garsten, 2013). Besides, it can engage in school projects by building and contributing immensely to the development of education in expressing its willingness to correct the ethical issues previously present in the case. As a result, an enterprise ends up promoting the change and adoption of values that relate to the societys expectations thus gaining increased performance due to perception change in the society. Philanthropic Responsibility Philanthropy refers to a social giving out of free will to assist a society irrespective of whether the effects drive positive revenues to society. In this case, the social activity done does not have to be related to the core business model of an enterprise working in a given area (Bowen, 2013). For instance, a manufacturing firm choosing to participate in a social activity aimed at assisting a community hit by floods by donating foodstuff, makeshift tents for housing and medical services does so as a philanthropic move. In this respect, the activities done do not relate to its business but are done as part of the social responsibility to the society in reaction to a current issue that affects the society (Baumann-Pauly, Wickert, Spence, Scherer, 2013). Besides, the assistance has no relation to its profitability but rather occurs as a social giving where a firm spends its resources towards solving a crisis in a given area of operation. The government does not require task firms to participate in such activities as they are not related to its core business and harms caused in its production process. However, the social giving goes a long way towards creating a strong reputation for the company which gains favor with the people by solving a crucial issue that affects the individuals in the long run. Eventually, such a move leads to increased performance in a business where employees are happy to remain in such a firm coupled with the good relationship prompting members of the society participating in the business as consumers. Besides, corporate social responsibility in such a case promotes the good image of a firm thereby yielding in positive recruitment and retention activities that give a firm the best employees towards production (Zadek, Evans Pruzan, 2013). Employees love to work with companies that are responsible to their environment and respect the individuals involved in its production. As such, a firm ends up spending less on the recruitment and selection as there would be a high level of loyalty by the employees thus saving costs for the firm. Eventually, the good reputation created through the provision of the proper working environment and the sustainable ventures in the society boost a good rating and reputation to a firm thus increasing the performance of an enterprise. Moreover, corporate social responsibility increases a good reputation attached to a given brand which acts positively in marketing businesses. CSR is a core contributor to the profitability of a company through brand name spread and recognition. A firm participating in a philanthropic activity creates awareness of its name in the society which translates into the adoption of a substantial marketing opportunity to its products thus translates into an improved performance for the business model (Bowen, 2013). At the same time, such a firm would be favored by the government given its active participation and thus benefit from the possibility of doing business with the government. Conclusion Social giving presents businesses with the opportunity to adhere to regulations, create social relations, make profits, and contribute towards philanthropic activities. All these factors contribute to their positive growth in reputation and business performance. The business environment is growing at a faster rate thus prompting for increased strategies through corporate social giving to act as a marketing tool towards posterity. The instances cited in the paper present the best practices that affect the theories related to corporate social responsibilities. Social responsibilities opportunities present avenues for cost saving as the venture retain employees and increase the business opportunities for business. Companies stand to benefit from the positive contribution to the society which builds relationships and more engagement for posterity. Therefore, businesses need to utilize the opportunity created by CSR towards business growth. References Baumann-Pauly, D., Wickert, C., Spence, L. J., Scherer, A. G. (2013). Organizing corporate social responsibility in small and large firms: Size matters.Journal of Business Ethics,115(4), 693-705. Bowen, H. R. (2013).Social responsibilities of the businessman. University of Iowa Press. Branco, M. C., Rodrigues, L. L. (2006). Corporate social responsibility and resource-based perspectives.Journal of business Ethics,69(2), 111-132. Brnn, P. S., Vrioni, A. B. (2001). Corporate social responsibility and cause-related marketing: an overview.International journal of Advertising,20(2), 207-222. Cahan, S. F., Chen, C., Chen, L., Nguyen, N. (2014, August). The Business Press and Corporate Social Responsibility: Reputation, Cost of Capital, and Firm Value. InAmerican Accounting Association Annual Meeting Session, Atlanta, GA(Vol. 5). Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., Sen, S. (2010). Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility (CSR): The role of CSR communication.International Journal of Management Reviews,12(1), 8-19. Fatma, M., Rahman, Z., Khan, I. (2015). Building company reputation and brand equity through CSR: the mediating role of trust.International Journal of Bank Marketing,33(6), 840-856. Fleming, P., Roberts, J., Garsten, C. (2013). In search of corporate social responsibility: Introduction to special issue.Organization,20(3), 337-348. Lelwala, U. L. (2015). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Mallin, C., Farag, H., Ow-Yong, K. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance in Islamic banks.Journal of Economic Behavior Organization,103, S21-S38. McWilliams, A., Siegel, D. S., Wright, P. M. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: Strategic implications.Journal of management studies,43(1), 1-18. Moir, L. (2001). What do we mean by corporate social responsibility?.Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society,1(2), 16-22. Unerman, J. (2008). Strategic reputation risk management and corporate social responsibility reporting.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,21(3), 362-364. Vanhamme, J., Grobben, B. (2009). Too good to be true!. The effectiveness of CSR history in countering negative publicity.Journal of Business Ethics,85, 273-283. Vitell, S. J. (2015). A case for consumer social responsibility (CnSR): Including a selected review ofconsumer ethics/social responsibility research.Journal of Business Ethics,130(4), 767-774. Zadek, S., Evans, R., Pruzan, P. (2013).Building corporate accountability: Emerging practice in social and ethical accounting and auditing. Routledge.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

How important were the Womens Suffrage Campaigns in the decision ot grant women the vote in 1918 Essay Example

How important were the Womens Suffrage Campaigns in the decision ot grant women the vote in 1918 Essay On June 19th 1918, the House of Commons voted 385 to 55 to accept the Representation of the Peoples Bill, thus granting the vote to women for the first time. This represented the culmination of a long process of change in the 19th and early 20th century, when many middle class women had made significant advances into the male sphere, especially in work and politics. Womens suffrage was constantly kept on the political agenda. They had become much more involved in a range of serious activities across society which made it harder for politicians to justify not giving them the vote. With ? of adult males having the vote by 1884, it seemed unfair that women, like mentally unstable people and criminals, were denied the basic right to vote.Therefore, as no one in any political party was campaigning for votes for women the Suffrage societies formed. Both the Suffragist, and later the Suffragette, campaigns were extremely important in convincing politicians to grant women the vote, as they b rought the cause to a national audience and highlighted the political inequalities between men and women at that time. However, there are other factors such as the Great War, which gave women the opportunity to show that they could keep the country going in a time of need that played significant roles in the decision to extend the franchise to women in 1918. It is largely assumed that the decision was made as a reflection of MPs appreciation of the womens war work, though historian Martin Pugh suggests that it was just a continuation of the pre-1914 majority in Parliament for womens suffrage. Above all, the campaigns of the womens suffrage societies were vital in the passing of the 1918 Bill, as the vote may not have been granted to women had they not been so effective before the war. It is certain that the pre-war suffrage movement, especially that of the Suffragists, prepared the basis for votes for women.The National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) was formed in 1887 u nder the leadership of Millicent Fawcett. They were the first group of women to argue for women to receive the vote. All suffrage movements before this were localised and so had no real impact on politicians. The NUWSS was made up of middle class women who campaigned in reaction to the further enfranchisement of men after the Second Reform Act of 1867, where skilled working class men gained the vote, yet all women were excluded.These middle class women campaigned in the NUWSS as they had free time and comprehensive social networks, and were influenced by liberal equal rights ideology, such as On Liberty by J.S Mill, a philosopher and MP who, in 1865, became the first member in Parliament to call for the vote to be given to women. The campaign brought this issue to the attention of politicians, and although many women were opposed to them gaining the vote they saw it as threatening to both their comfortable status and identity as women the Suffragists, as they became known, grew fr om local suffrage societies all over the country and had thousands of members. Their peaceful tactics, such as petitions, silent protests and public speeches aimed to raise awareness and win wider support by persuasion.In February 1907, for example, over 3000 women marched through the streets of London from Hyde Park to Exeter Hall advocating for womens suffrage in the cold and wet, proving to the WSPU that the NUWSS was equally vigorous in fighting for reform. These tactics were designed to undermine the stereotypical view that women were disorganised, irrational and politically illiterate. They won over many politicians such as Lloyd George, who even though the rest of their party were against the idea both expressed support towards women. The Suffragists campaign was pretty successful pre-1914, as is evident from the 1911 Conciliation Bill. By 1914, with 53,000 members across 480 branches, the Suffragists were having an impact on the views of politicians towards them, as seen by politicians such as most Liberals who had growing support for these women, clearly shown in the 1911 Conciliation Bill, where 255 MPs were for votes for women, and many abstained, whilst 40 Private Members Bills were also taken to Parliament between 1867 and 1907 requesting the enfranchisement of women, showing the growing backing for them.The Suffragists also won Labour supporters from the 1912 pact, where Labour candidates would stand for election in constituencies where the Liberal candidate opposed votes for women. This meant that Labour candidates could benefit by gaining votes of Liberals who favoured votes for women. Sandra Holton states that what can be confidently asserted is the importance of womens suffragists own efforts, especially the efforts of the democratic suffragists, in securing the strong position enjoyed by their cause at the outbreak of war. It can also be argued that the cause was more or less won by 1914 and that women receiving the vote was inevitable in th e near future, thanks to the Suffragist campaign. By 1914 most Liberals were in favour of extending the franchise to women, portrayed in the Conciliation Bill of 1911 when approximately 1/3 of the Liberal party voted for granting votes to women, but were not obvious because the government collapsed and the Bill did not become law, thus illustrating the success of the electoral pact.However, there is evidence to suggest that politicians just ignored the Suffragists. Their success can be questioned, as all 40 of the Private Members Bills were rejected, and in the 2nd Conciliation Bill, MPs voted against enfranchising women. Also, without having the support of Asquith, Prime Minister at the time, the Suffragists were never going to be able to gain women the vote before 1914. In order to stop women gaining the vote, Asquith dropped the Second Conciliation Bill of 1911 and instead wished to put forward a bill that would give more men the vote, initially angering the WSPU. It is clear tha t some politicians did not see the Suffragist campaign as much of a threat, as in 1905 they held a mock debate, where MPs discussed a measure that would force horse and cart owners to have lamps, just to avoid even debating womens suffrage. This angered many members of the Womens Movement, the group of upper middle class women who wanted to gain more political rights and a more prominent place in society for women, and some even broke away to form their own, more forceful Womens Movement.The breakaway movement from the NUWSS was formed in 1903 and named the Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU). Led by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Sylvia and Christabel, they were prepared to be more active in an attempt to gain women the vote. Nicknamed the Suffragettes, they were rather extreme, with some of their tactics including pouring acid on golf courses where the MPs played, cutting telephone wires and even chaining themselves to railings during loud and often violent protests. T hese women even went to the extreme of destroying major works of art for publicity, for example, Mary Richardson who became known as Slasher Mary, attacked the Rockeby Venus by Velà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½zquez in the National gallery seven times with an axe in 1914, which gained a lot of news coverage. Suffragette militancy was the result of politicians trying to ignore the issue of votes for women in the early 19th century.It is arguable that their militancy set the cause back, as seen by the rejection of the idea of votes for women in the results of the 2nd Conciliation Bill in 1912, and Asquiths refusal to consider concessions until all militancy stopped. Even some women did not believe that having the vote was necessary, as they were content with their position in society. Many men were also opposed to women having the vote, and in 1909, a petition by the Mens League Opposing Womens Suffrage was signed by thousands of males like Lord Curzon, Vice President of the above league and of the Con servative Party who firmly believed that militancy resulted from the mental instability of women. These factors all seemed to prove that the militant approach did not work, and when Sylvia was kicked out of the WSPU in 1913, it was regarded that the Suffragette movement was too radical and aggressive by many. Their tactics angered politicians, who claimed that they showed women to be untrustworthy and unworthy of the vote. MPs thought that these women were mentally unstable and so were not in a suitable state of mind to vote sensibly. When Asquith agreed to meet in June 1914, he only met with the East London branch of Suffragettes. At this meeting, he agreed that it would be unjustified to grant limited suffrage to women with unlimited suffrage to men.This suggested a willingness to accept womens suffrage if it was part of a broader scheme. Yet, he did not meet with all Suffrage organisations. Suffragette militancy took the cause to the attention of the whole country. For example, t he Cat and Mouse Act of 1913, which was passed as hunger strikes were making the Suffragette prisoners ill, so they were sent home from prison to recover, then ordered back to serve their full sentence, allowed the whole nation to see how serious these women were about the cause, and at what lengths they would go to, to get their point across. Britains awareness was further raised when Emily Davidson ran out in front of the Kings horse at the Derby in 1912, subsequently killing herself. She was perceived by some as a martyr to the cause, but mainly as a fringe lunatic, as the WSPU didnt even know of her plan. In addition, the Suffragettes proved to politicians that they were responsible and dedicated to helping the nation when they ceased their campaign when war broke out in 1914.During the late 19th and early 20th century, women were advancing in the workplace, being employed as secretaries and typists, working in offices or shops and even as teachers in schools. This was due to th e growth of the Civil Service and the building of new department stores throughout Britain. These jobs were permitted because they didnt require the women to have much training, although women were paid less than men. By 1911 366,268 women were employed as shop assistants and 39,773 as civil servants. Women were granted more legal rights, such as being able to divorce their husbands if they were being violently abused and gained more rights over their children and money.They were even granted the right to vote in local elections in the Municipal Franchises Act of 1869, but only if they owned property themselves. As women were granted a better education in the late 1800s, the range of subjects taught to young women broadened and were improved, some women were permitted to go to university; a change which would have been seen as unacceptable in previous decades. However, educational opportunities were very different for working class women and middle class women. They were offered dif ferent access to education, which led to unequal job opportunities. These new educational rights for women benefited the middle class, but reinforced the working class domestic role by limiting their educational choice. The changing status of women during the early 20th century was rapidly sped up by the outbreak of war in 1914.The Great War was significant in the decision to grant women the vote, as women made a vital contribution to the war effort. Their work impressed politicians and convinced the Government of the political and strategic importance of women in a total war situation, as they were prepared to step up and help their country in a time of need by working in munitions factories, in the Womens Royal Air Force working on planes as mechanics, on farms in the Womens Land Army and also in shipyards.They quickly adjusted to their new role in society. It is evident that politicians like Asquith were convinced of womens importance, as shown by his backing of the 1918 Bill. Th e suspension of the Suffragette campaign at the outbreak of the Great War allowed the Government to grant votes to women once the war had ended. Moreover, the creation of a National Government in 1916 helped the womens campaign, as it brought sympathisers into Government, especially when Lloyd George became Prime Minister. Women now had much more of a chance of gaining the vote, since the PM was in favour of votes for women, as shown by his advocation for womens suffrage at various meetings. He only opposed the First Conciliation Bill of 1910 because it offered too limited a franchise. The Great War introduced many politicians who supported womens suffrage into Parliament.The Coalition Government contained several of them, and political opinion was coming round to support a limited form of womens suffrage. It is also supposed that women were enfranchised because the war had changed male perceptions about womens role in society. It was now evident that women were being accepted into the public world of work, which then led on to the acceptance of women into the world of politics too. In addition, the war allowed a number of hostile MPs to end their increasingly weak position of opposing women. They realised that reform was inevitable and so used the war work as a pretext to save face. Politicians such as Asquith didnt necessarily change their attitude towards women, but had been proved wrong that women were not trustworthy enough to receive the vote. These politicians were also reluctant to support a basically sexist position, and were outnumbered by the growing majority of politicians who now supported votes for women, and couldnt be seen to reject a plausible argument based on fact.Immediately after the war, however, there was a severe backlash of women in the workplace, and they were treated as though none of their war work mattered anymore. Men came back from fighting and wanted their jobs back in the factories and on the farmland. Women were angered by a t rade union conference in 1918 calling for women to be banned from unsuitable trades, and some women were even attacked by protesting, unemployed ex-servicemen in Bristol. By 1921, most women had left their wartime jobs as a result. These events show that for many, the womens war work was expected and was not seen as the womens capability to survive in what was considered a mans world.The Great War was the best opportunity for women to show that they were responsible enough to have the vote and of serious use to the country when it needed it most, although the Act which followed it did not please many of the women who had worked during the war in the hope that they would be enfranchised. The war did accelerate changing social attitudes, however, which had already been in existence before 1914 as shown by womens advances into the male world in the early 1900s. This social change greatly affected the decision to pass the 1918 Bill, as the government would have been reluctant to introdu ce the radical and traditionally opposed idea of votes for women without the major social change.The Suffragist campaign continued even after WW1 had started, and the Speakers Conference was held to try and resolve the franchise issue. The conference delayed considering the decision until January 1917 as it was so controversial, but realised that it had to be resolved to avoid further protest. The members of the conference indicated support for womens suffrage by a vote of 15 to 6, but rejected equal suffrage by a vote of 12 to 10. They decided that an age limit should be introduced as to how old women had to be before they could vote, but left it to Parliament to decide whether that age should be 30 or 35. This was a major step towards reform, but it did not guarantee that women would get the vote.As a result of this, Fawcett led a deputation from 22 suffrage societies that met with the Local Government Boards President in February, 1917. Fawcett was arguably the most important fig ure in the Suffrage campaigns, as she argued strongly against anti-suffragists and kept the Suffragist campaign going during WW1, even though the Suffragette movement ceased. It was decided that if the government put the Speakers Report in its bill, then the womens societies would have to accept it and not argue for more reform, like equal franchise. The Boards President urged the Cabinet to agree to this as it would prevent any further radical activities. Fawcett was critical to this also, as she persuaded the Suffrage societies to accept the agreement.The Speakers Conference was very important, as it indicates the importance of the Suffragist campaign. Gradually, the traditional perceptions that a womans role in society was to cook, clean and to look after their children, was eroded and generations of men, women and politicians witnessed the growing influence of women. These made the common male argument that women shouldnt get the vote appear illogical. After 1918, this reason be came less and less sensible, and there was little serious opposition to the 1928 Bill giving the vote to all women over 21, which was never in danger of being defeated. The changing social and political status of women before 1914, however, can be considered as the biggest impact in the decision to give women the vote, as it helped to create a political conscience on votes for women and reinforced the Suffragist message, even though the majority of the public werent in favour of women getting the vote.Overall, the Womens Suffrage campaigns had very significant importance in the decision to grant women the vote in 1918 because they demonstrated that women were not just housewives of less importance than their husbands and who were of no use, and that they were smart and determined people who had a dedicated desire for society to change to include women more. The Great War was important as it proved that women were more skilled that originally thought and gave politicians the chance t o recognise this, but postponed the decision to give women the vote. However, without changing social and economic status of women before the Great War, it can be assumed that Britains people would never have supported womens suffrage and thus the vote may not have been granted to women by 1918.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The Artistic Gladiator essays

The Artistic Gladiator essays Art is defined in the Webster Dictionary as human ability to make things; creativity of man as distinguished from the world of nature (Websters New World College Dictionary). Now when most people think of art or see a definition like that, they think of art that can be viewed in museums, such as: paintings, and sculptures, not the considering art in film. Film can be viewed as all other forms of art thrown together to create an all-encompassing work of art. Movies have ingredients from almost all forms of art. The dialogue, and the plot the actual story being conveyed can be considered form literature. In fact most ideas and story lines for movies come from novels and other publications. Another contribution from the art world to film is music. Full scores of music are made particularly to suit the mood of the movie, the desired feeling that is communicated to the audience by the use of music. And in some cases the movie can make a single, or a whole sound track into its own marketable venture. Also the photography or in this case the cinematography in the film, the settings, realistic action sequences take great skill. And last but not least the theatrical aspects that go into a movie, the way the actors or actresses visually express the telling of a story and show feelings is the most important part. One film that I chose for an example of this is Gladiator. This film was a major award winner in its year of showing on the big screen. I choose this movie because I felt that it has been one in recent years that has caught my attention as being a movie that will be one revered as a classic when its time comes. It also displays all of the previous aspects of art that I have already mentioned. Gladiator was made in 2000 staring Russell Crowe as an army general for the Roman Empire. He is sentenced to death by the new ruling dictator of Rome due to fear of his power with the armys loya ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Immigrants and Health Care Access in the United States Essay

Immigrants and Health Care Access in the United States - Essay Example From this study it is clear that  the successive waves of immigration into the country has kept the country demographically young and enriched with a variety of cultures. Consequently, there have been an improved productive capacity throughout the country and this has helped shape the influence and position of the United States in the world. Immigration has always given the United States an economic edge in the global economy. Immigrants have brought the entrepreneurial spirit and innovative ideas into the economy of United States. Through immigrants, the demand for goods and service has increased. It is immigrants who have developed new innovative products such as Java computer language, a programming language that have created a lot of employment for millions of Americans.  This discussion highlights that  the American immigration laws are very complex laws, and for one to become an American citizen there is a long way to go. The immigration policies provide several legal dis tinctions between different types of immigrants, such as naturalized citizens, undocumented immigrants, and noncitizens. Naturalized American citizens are individuals born in foreign countries but have become citizens of the United States lawfully and can enjoy all the rights enjoyed by American born citizens. The non citizens on their parts involve the individuals born in foreign countries but live in the United States lawfully but have not obtained American citizenship. They include the legal immigrants, refugees, asylums, and refugees.